For more recent periods we can also make use of population censuses and lists of population. Their availability depends on the individual archives.
The best tools are available in Prague, allowing to search by name in the lists of population (from 1830–1920) or in the list of applications for residence permits of the Prague police directorate (from 1850–1914). The bad news is that the data in these documents are not always entirely correct and it is a good idea to verify them in more reliable sources, such as registers.
The Brno archives, too, make name search possible.
As for population censuses from smaller towns, here we have to make do with scanned census sheets.
In Bohemia, a number of them have been digitalized by the State Regional Archives Pilsen, by the State Regional Archives Třeboň and its subordinate district archives and the State Regional Archives Litoměřice.
In Brno and Vienna your search can be facilitated by officially published address books, which usually contain names and addresses as well as occupations.